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本文摘要:The Ache: In presbyopia, the eyes lens loses elasticity with age. The ability to focus on near objects deteriorates, resulting in the need for reading glasses.病痛:老花眼的成因是,眼睛的晶状体随年龄快速增长而丧失弹性,探讨近处物体的能力弱化,因此必须配戴老花镜。

The Ache: In presbyopia, the eyes lens loses elasticity with age. The ability to focus on near objects deteriorates, resulting in the need for reading glasses.病痛:老花眼的成因是,眼睛的晶状体随年龄快速增长而丧失弹性,探讨近处物体的能力弱化,因此必须配戴老花镜。The Claim: A 12-week, scientifically tested training program, newly available as an iPhone app, uses a technique called perceptual learning to reduce -- or even eliminate -- the need for reading glasses.主张:一项为期12周、经过科学检验的训练项目最近以iPhone应用于的形式面市,该项目用于一种取名为“感官自学”(perceptual learning)的技术来增加(甚至避免)配戴老花镜的必要性。The Verdict: A 30-person study published in February 2012 in the journal Scientific Reports found that after trying the program -- now on sale as an iPhone app called Glasses-Off -- participants on average could read letters 1.6 times smaller than they could previously. The program is much more likely to show improvement in adults 40 to 60 years old, scientists say.定论:2012年2月份刊出在《科学报告》(Scientific Reports)上的一项覆盖面积30人的研究的论文认为,在试用该项目(目前作为一个取名为“扣上眼镜”(Glasses-Off)的iPhone应用于销售)之后,参与者平均值需要读者比之前小1.6倍的字母。


科学家们回应,该项目为40至60岁的成年人带给提高的可能性要比其他人群小得多。The self-guided app, launched this week by GlassesOff Inc., starts with a vision test, followed by a personalized training program users employ three times a week for 12 to 15 minutes per session. In one test, users must decide whether an E is facing up, down, right or left. The test gets harder when the E becomes smaller or lower-contrast. At the end of the session, users receive a personalized assessment of how much the app is likely to help them in various tasks, such as reading an article.该自助式应用于由GlassesOff Inc.于近期发售,该公司在以色列和纽约另设办公室。该应用于一开始是一项视力测试,之后是个性化训练项目,用户一周拒绝接受三次训练,每次12到15分钟。



在训练的最后,用户不会拒绝接受一项个性化评估,想到该应用于能在多大程度上协助他们改良在各项任务中的展现出,比如阅读文章。The training consists of identifying fuzzy, striped images called Gabor patches, which can be hard to see against a similarly colored backdrop.该训练内容还包括辨识取名为“特博尔视标”(Gabor patch)的条纹状模糊不清图案,在颜色相似的背景下,这些图案辨识一起不会有可玩性。The app is free for two or three weeks after a user signs up. To continue using it after that costs $59 for four months. The company, which has offices in Israel and New York, is offering a temporary $10 promotional price. After the initial program, the company offers a personalized maintenance program of one or two sessions per week at extra cost.该应用于在用户注册两周或三周之内可免费用于。之后若想之后用于,费用为59美元,可用于四个月,目前促销价为10美元。

最初的训练项目已完成之后,该公司不会获取一项个性化维持项目,每周决定一次或两次训练,需额外交费。The app isnt a cure for presbyopia, but makes the brain better able to interpret the poor information it gets from aging eyes, says Dennis M. Levi, dean of University of California Berkeleys School of Optometry and co-author of the study. Dr. Levi is a scientific adviser to GlassesOff and has been promised stock options as compensation.加州大学伯克利分校(University of California Berkeley)眼科视光学学院(School of Optometry)主任、此项研究作者之一丹尼斯M.利瓦伊(Dennis M. Levi)回应,该应用于并不能治愈老花,但能使大脑“更佳地演绎”通过老化的眼睛所取得的匮乏信息。利瓦伊博士是GlassesOff的科学顾问,该公司允诺颁发他股票期权作为报酬。Anyone can use the product, says GlassesOff Chief Executive Nimrod Madar. But people over 70 likely still will need reading glasses for extended reading and low-light tasks.GlassesOff首席执行长尼姆罗德马达尔(Nimrod Madar)回应,任何人都可以用于该产品。

但70岁以上的人如果长时间读者或在光线较暗的环境中做到事情,有可能还是必须配戴老花镜。Using the new app might help people to better recognize slightly blurry images, but it isnt going to change the elasticity of the lens, says James Salz, a clinical professor of ophthalmology at the University of Southern California.南加州大学(University of Southern California)眼科学临床教授詹姆斯萨尔斯(James Salz)回应,用于这款新的应用于“也许能协助人们更佳地辨识显得模糊不清的图像,但会转变晶状体的弹性”。

The idea of using perceptual learning for vision difficulties has scientific merit, says Peter J. Bex, a neuroscientist at Schepens Eye Research Institute in Boston, part of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Using perceptual learning to improve vision has proved viable in several scientific studies, including in people with lazy eye. Still, more research is needed on the GlassesOff program -- particularly comparing the test group to a group that got an ersatz training exercise, scientists say.波士顿舍内彭斯眼科研究所(Schepens Eye Research Institute,归属于马萨诸塞州眼科和耳科医院(Massachusetts Eye and Ear Institute))神经学家彼得J.贝克斯(Peter J. Bex)称之为,通过感官自学来减轻视觉艰难这一作法是有科学道理的。通过感官自学来提高视力的可行性已获得几项科学研究的证明,其中还包括针对弱视者的研究。

但科学家称之为,还必须对GlassesOff的项目进行更加多研究――特别是在是将受试组与拒绝接受替代训练的界别展开对照的研究。Another issue, Dr. Bex says, is that the results of perceptual learning sometimes apply only very narrowly to the tasks practiced in training. The ability to read small print may improve, but its unclear how much difference that makes for people in a wider range of daily tasks.贝克斯博士回应,另一个问题是感官自学的效果有时意味着局限于在训练中锻炼过的任务。


读者小字的能力可能会有所提高,但目前还不确切这项训练能在多大程度上提升人们已完成更加普遍日常任务的能力。A study, presented in July at the Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision in China, found that the GlassesOff program improved performance on measures including contrast sensitivity -- suggesting the improvement will apply to a wide range of daily tasks, Mr. Madar says.马达尔说道,7月份在中国举办的亚太视觉会议(Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision)上递交的一项研究成果表明,GlassesOff的项目提高了对比敏感度等指标――似乎该应用于能提高人们已完成普遍日常任务的能力。



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